Research on omega-3 fatty acids has come a long way since its beginnings in the middle 70's: Starting with studies on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, interest soon turned to the mechanisms of and the need to balance the omega-6 to the omega-3 ratio for homeostasis and normal development. Today, it is widely accepted that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid are essential for brain development during pregnancy, lactation and throughout the life cycle. It is also no longer controversial that DHA can affect brain function, mental health and behavior, and studies on supplemental DHA in age-related macular degeneration have revealed significant interactions between DHA and genetic variants. Featuring contributions by leading scientists in the field, this publication discusses not only the role of omega-3 fatty acids in maintaining homeostasis, but also their importance in the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the aging process or genetic predisposition. It is thus not only of interest to nutritionists, dieticians or policy makers, but also to psychologists, physiologists, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, ophthalmologists, geneticists, neurologists, pediatricians, obstetricians and geriatricians.