For 'Recent Progress in Brain and Cognitive Engineering'Brain and Cognitive Engineering is a converging study field to derive a better understanding of cognitive information processing in the human brain, to develop "human-like" and neuromorphic artificial intelligent systems and to help predict and analyze brain-related diseases. The key concept of Brain and Cognitive Engineering is to understand the Brain, to interface the Brain, and to engineer the Brain. It could help us to understand the structure and the key principles of high-order information processing on how the brain works, to develop interface technologies between a brain and external devices and to develop artificial systems that can ultimately mimic human brain functions. The convergence of behavioral, neuroscience and engineering research could lead us to advance health informatics and personal learning, to enhance virtual reality and healthcare systems, and to "reverse engineer" some brain functions and build cognitive robots.In this book, four different recent research directions are presented: Non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces, Cognitive- and Neural-rehabilitation Engineering, Big Data Neurocomputing, Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Neural Diseases. We cover numerous topics ranging from smart vehicles and online EEG analysis, neuroimaging for Brain-Computer Interfaces, memory implantation and rehabilitation, big data computing in cultural aspects and cybernetics to brain disorder detection. Hopefully this will provide a valuable reference for researchers in medicine, biomedical engineering, in industry and academia for their further investigations and be inspiring to those who seek the foundations to improve techniques and understanding of the Brain and Cognitive Engineering research field.