Growth and nutrition during the fetal period and the first 24 months after birth are important determinants of development in early childhood. Optimal nutrition and health care of both the mother and infant during these first 1000 days of an infant's life are closely linked to growth, learning potential and neurodevelopment, in turn affecting long-term outcomes. Children with low birth weight do not only include premature babies, but also those with intrauterine growth restrictions who consequently have a very high risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the future. Epidemiology, epigenetic programming, the correct nutrition strategy and monitoring of outcomes are thus looked at carefully in this book. More specifically, two important nutritional issues are dealt with in depth: The first being the prevention of low birth weight, starting with the health of adolescent girls, through the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy stages and ending with lactation. The second point of focus concerns the nutritional follow-up and feeding opportunities in relation to dietary requirements of children with low birth weight. von Bhatia, J. und Bhutta, Z. A. und Kalhan, S. C.