This book presents the first experiment revealing several unexplored non-equilibrium properties of quantum many-body states, and addresses the interplay between the Kondo effect and superconductivity by probing shot noise. In addition, it describes in detail nano-fabrication techniques for carbon nanotube quantum dots, and a measurement protocol and principle that probes both equilibrium and non-equilibrium quantum states of electrons. The book offers various reviews of topics in mesoscopic systems: shot noise measurement, carbon nanotube quantum dots, the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and quantum dots with superconducting leads, which are relevant to probing non-equilibrium physics. These reviews offer particularly valuable resources for readers interested in non-equilibrium physics in mesoscopic systems. Further, the cutting-edge experimental results presented will allow reader to catch up on a vital new trend in the field.