Based on the study of neuroscientific developments and innovations, examined from different angles, this Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the international neuroethical debate, and offers unprecedented insights into the impact of neuroscientific research, diagnosis, and therapy. Neuroethics - as a multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary endeavor - examines the implications of the neurosciences for human beings in general and for their self-understanding and their social interactions in particular. The range of approaches adopted in neuroethics and thus in this handbook includes but is not limited to historical, anthropological, ethical, philosophical, theological, sociological and legal approaches. The Handbook deals with a plethora of topics, divided into in three parts: the first part contains discussions of theories of neuroethics and how neuroscience impacts on our understanding of personal identity, free will, and other philosophical concepts. The second part is dedicated to issues involved in current and future clinical applications of neurosciences, such as brain stimulation, brain imaging, prosthetics, addiction, and psychiatric ethics. The final part deals with neuroethics and society and includes chapters on neurolaw, neurotheology, neuromarketing, and enhancement.