Awareness of the influence of our genetic variation to dietary response (nutrigenetics) and how nutrients may affect gene expression (nutrigenomics) is prompting a revolution in the field of nutrition. Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics provide powerful approaches to unravel the complex relationships among nutritional molecules, genetic variants and the biological system. This publication contains selected papers from the '3rd Congress of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics' held in Bethesda, Md., in October 2009. The contributions address frontiers in nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, epigenetics, transcriptomics as well as non-coding RNAs and posttranslational gene regulations in various diseases and conditions. In addition to scientific studies, the challenges and opportunities facing governments, academia and the industry are included. Everyone interested in the future of personalized medicine and nutrition or agriculture, as well as researchers in academia, government and industry will find this publication of the utmost interest for their work. von Simopoulos, A. P. und Milner, J. A.