This judicious selection of articles combines mathematical and numerical methods to apply parameter estimation and optimum experimental design in a range of contexts. These include fields as diverse as biology, medicine, chemistry, environmental physics, image processing and computer vision. The material chosen was presented at a multidisciplinary workshop on parameter estimation held in 2009 in Heidelberg. The contributions show how indispensable efficient methods of applied mathematics and computer-based modeling can be to enhancing the quality of interdisciplinary research. The use of scientific computing to model, simulate, and optimize complex processes has become a standard methodology in many scientific fields, as well as in industry. Demonstrating that the use of state-of-the-art optimization techniques in a number of research areas has much potential for improvement, this book provides advanced numerical methods and the very latest results for the applications under consideration. von Bock, Hans Georg und Carraro, Thomas und Jäger, Willi und Körkel, Stefan und Rannacher, Rolf und Schlöder, Johannes P.