Modern transfusion medicine is sophisticated hemotherapy. Cellular and humoral blood components can be relevant in virtually every disease, either as a primary determinant in pathophysiology or as a victim of collateral damage, e.g. during treatment with cytostatic drugs, or as crucial substrates in replacement and hemostasis-navigated hemotherapy. With its interdisciplinary approach modern hemotherapy is a paragon of translational research bridging the bench-to-bedside gap in biomedicine. The state-of-the-art contributions collected here aim to stimulate lively discussions - not only among blood center professionals but also with blood and vascular biologists, hematologists, immunologists, anesthesiologists, intensive care specialists, surgeons, cardiologists, nephrologists, rheumatologists, and pulmonary and infectious disease specialists. von Scharf, Rüdiger E.