The 5th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2010, was held at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), B- jing, China on September 19-20, 2010. MIAR has remained a truly international meeting, bringing together - searchers from all ?elds related to medical image analysis, visualization and targeted intervention.In recent years,technical advances in therapeutic delivery andagrowingdemandforpatient-speci?ctreatmenthaveacceleratedtheclinical applications of MIAR-related techniques. Imaging plays an increasingly imp- tant role in targeted therapy, with interventions such as drug or gene therapy relying on more accurate delivery tailored to individual patients. Rapid progress in surgical methodologies, such as those with robot assistance, demands p- cise guidance from both preoperative and intraoperative imaging. The volume of data available from existing and emerging imaging modalities leads to a - sire for more automated analysis for diagnosis, segmentation and registration. Research in this rapidly developing area is highly multi-disciplinary, integrating research in life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, and medicine.