The majority of the global population is affected by repair or replacement of craniofacial structures caused by tooth decay or loss as well as major craniofacial defects, necessitating complex tissue augmentation or regeneration procedures. As a result of exciting developments and the increasing number of novel biomaterials and different clinical applications, it is extremely important to understand these biomaterials and their design. This publication integrates the application of biomaterials science and describes the recent advances, the role of cutting-edge biomaterials in engineering oral tissues, surface modification technologies, the emerging field of nanomaterials and clinical translation showing future directions in oral and craniomaxillofacial health care. Researchers active in dental, medical and biomaterials sciences, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, dentists, tissue engineers as well as materials scientists will find valuable information on the latest progress and novel approaches as will all those who are looking for better solutions to the problems associated with facial deformities. von Deb, S.