Technology seems to be an integral part of modern living. Urologists have over the years embraced new technological advances for patient beneft. On some occasions, however, the initial enthusiasm in something new has failed to endure rigorous scientifc scrutiny. Thus, while being technological leaders, we urologists know better than most other surgical speci- ties that what is new is not necessarily good. This textbook is aimed at urologists and surgeons at all levels and has contributions from international experts. The topics vary from robotics to lasers to single port laparoscopy. The comprehensive chapters should be of equal interest to uro-oncologists and those involved in treating benign urological diseases. While the contents are meant to bring the reader up to date with technological advances, the authors have attempted to balance their enthusiasm with basic science, translational research, and clinical outcomes. It will be obvious that some of the s- jects mentioned here, such as nanotechnology, are still evolving, and it will be a while before they undergo clinical trials that establish their position in clinical medicine. We hope you enjoy reading this book as much as we have enjoyed creating it. London, UK Prof. Prokar Dasgupta Dublin, Ireland Prof. John Fitzpatrick London, UK Prof. Roger Kirby CA, USA Prof. Inderbir S. Gill vii Acknowledgements The editors thank all authors for their time and valuable contributions. We are also grateful to our developmental editors Joni Fraser and Barbara Lopez-Lucio. von Dasgupta, Prokar und Fitzpatrick, John und Kirby, Roger und Gill, Inderbir S.