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Our goal is to develop automated methods for the segmentation of thr- dimensional biomedical images. Here, we describe the segmentation of c- focal microscopy images of bee brains (20 individuals) by registration to one or several atlas images. Registration is performed by a highly parallel imp- mentation of an entropy-based nonrigid registration algorithm using B-spline transformations. We present and evaluate different methods to solve the cor- spondence problem in atlas based registration. An image can be segmented by registering it to an individual atlas, an average atlas, or multiple atlases. When registering to multiple atlases, combining the individual segmentations into a ?nalsegmentationcanbeachievedbyatlasselection,ormulticlassi?erdecision fusion. Wedescribeallthesemethodsandevaluatethesegmentationaccuracies that they achieve by performing experiments with electronic phantoms as well as by comparing their outputs to a manual gold standard. The present work is focused on the mathematical and computational t- ory behind a technique for deformable image registration termed Hyperelastic Warping, and demonstration of the technique via applications in image regist- tion and strain measurement. The approach combines well-established prin- ples of nonlinear continuum mechanics with forces derived directly from thr- dimensional image data to achieve registration. The general approach does not require the de?nition of landmarks, ?ducials, or surfaces, although it can - commodate these if available. Representative problems demonstrate the robust and ?exible nature of the approach. Three-dimensional registration methods are introduced for registering MRI volumes of the pelvis and prostate. The chapter ?rst reviews the applications, xi xii Preface challenges, and previous methods of image registration in the prostate. von Laxminarayan, Swamy
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Jasjit Suri, Ph.D. has spent the last 20 years in the field of computer and electrical engineering, and more than a decade in imaging sciences. Dr. Suri has a masters in computer sciences from the University of Illinois, a doctorate from the University of Washington, Seattle, and will soon receive his EMBA from the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Suri has published over 100 technical publications in medical imaging, is a senior member of IEEE, member of the engineering honor societies Eta-Kappa-Nu and Tau-Beta-Phi, and a recipient of the President's Gold Medal in 1980. Prof. Swamy Laxminarayan, D.Sci. championed the field of Biomedical Engineering for over 30 years having held a variety of senior positions within the industry. He is an internationally recognized scientist, engineer, and educator with over 200 technical publications in biomedical information technology, computation biology, signal and image processing, biotechnology, and physiological system modeling. Prof. Laxminarayan is a fellow of AIMBE and a recipient of IEEE 3rd Millennium Medal.